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E dition- O riginale. Suggestions Search. Add to my virtual collection. First edition. Illustrated cover slightly rubbed. Where are we? On-line help. The term Milieu literally means middle and figuratively society or environment and refers to the set of criminal figures operating in the French metropolitan areas who are known to the public for being involved in high level organized crime. Members working within the Milieu are collectively known as the French Mob. This category does not include criminal organizations that were formed in another country and operate within France e.
Due to the early historical connection the Corsican mafia shares with the Sicilian one, the modern structure of most French mobs typically break down into crime families with a strict hierarchy. Most of these groups of members maintain and protect "mouvances" i.
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Externally, and more generally, the organization of the French mob is as follows:   . According to a study on organized crime , the activities of criminals within the French underworld typically fall into three broad categories: . The history of organized crime in France can be traced to the French Revolution to It is however with the turn of the 20th century that local mobsters became highly organized and created crime families.
Members of these gangs moved from the island of Corsica to the southern coasts of France during the early 20th century. During the s and s, many gangs — most notably the Tractions Avant gang — committed large scale bank robberies. The Zemmour brothers controlled prostitution in the French capital and were considered to be Godfathers of Paris. In , the two godfathers spearheaded the French Connection — a global heroin smuggling ring reaching its peak in the s and s. The French Connection was guided by various crime families into the late s before it was disbanded by French authorities.
The " Milieu of Marseille " i.
During the s, many "godfathers" e. Tany Zampa, Jacky Imbert , and Francis Vanverberghe fought for control over racketeering and drug trafficking in the port area of the city.
It was during this time that the Zemmour brothers — known as "The Godfathers of Paris" — were killed. Claude Genova quickly assumed the gap the brothers left and continued running low-level prostitution rings until his assassination. The Gang des postiches robbed nearly 30 banks during their run from to Claude Genova's connections and infrastructure was overtaken by the Hornec brothers in At the start of the s, cities were split up by families or "godfathers"  parrains. Larger cities, however, were fractured into various "mouvances" territories.
Many of these crime families established complex extortion rings in Marseille extending to Aix-en-Provence and the greater French Riviera. He broke out of prison on 13 April with a staged bombing and fled, but was captured on 29 May Minority members of French society are being lured into crime families as a way of "fitting in".
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Low economic growth in the south of France is also leading youth to join the ranks as drug mules to gain an income alternative. Since the s, the French Corsican mafia Milieu corso-marseillais has encompassed the newer, modern criminals in an effort to distinguish them from the "traditional Milieu " s to s. Members of this group extort landlords in most major French cities.
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Inter-gang fighting led to a spike in murder rates on the island of Corsica in In , it was reported that various North African gangs had moved to the suburbs of Paris in order to sell crack cocaine. In , there was also an influx of "Voyageurs" or "Traveller" gangs in Paris, Marseille , Grenoble , and Montpellier.
The most famous of them is the Hornec crime family ;  they regularly participate in robberies , extortion , drug trafficking, prostitution , and illegal slots machines. Mobs that also serve as crime families are denoted accordingly. Crime families in France are smaller units of mobs i. Alternately the phrase "crime family" could also mean the entirety of a mob, if it is small enough.
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