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Finally, the conclusion paragraph should summarize the introductory paragraph Do not use the same wording you used in the introduction paragraph. In the following section, we will provide you with TOEFL writing sample questions, sample writing responses, and useful writing templates for each of them. This scenario is the most common scenario. In this scenario, the lecture will contradict or cast doubt on the key points in the reading passage.

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Question: Summarize the points made in the lecture and explain how the speaker casts doubt on specific points made in the reading passage. As you can see, the main points of the lecture contradict the main points in the reading passage. The passage states that pollution was the cause of the declining population of sea otters, while the lecture states that the predation is the most likely cause of the decrease in sea otter populations.

Here is the sample essay:. In this scenario, the main points of the lecture are examples that support the key points in the reading passage. Question: Summarize the points in the lecture, being sure to explain how they address the specific concerns for social media described in the reading passage.

Your job is to plan and write an essay in response to this question. An "Agree or Disagree" question will give you a statement of opinion and ask you whether you agree or disagree with the statement. You will also have to provide specific reasons and examples to support your position. Here are examples:. This type of question is very similar to the Agree or Disagree question. Here is an example:.

Want to learn more about essay writing?

You must provide specific reasons and examples to explain why you prefer the option you choose. Here are two examples:.

Rather than choosing between two things or two opinions, you are typically not limited in your choice. That is, you can choose anything that fits the situation. Here are three examples:. A "Description or Explanation" question will ask you to describe a certain type of person — especially the good qualities of a person — or explain something in the world. You might have to choose something to explain, or you might be given something specific to explain.

You might have to explain why something is beneficial, important, or significant, or you might have to explain the reasons for or effects of something. This is our last question type on our list and is a little tricky. Generally speaking, you will see 2 variations of this type of question. First, the question might give you two subjects and could ask you to compare and contrast them. That is, to show the similarities and differences between them. However, the question might ask you to compare the advantages and disadvantages of only one subject, so read the question carefully.

Can you see the difference between them? When you write a comparison and contrast essay, you need to be aware of what the question is asking. Is it asking for the comparison of two different things or is it asking you to describe advantage and disadvantage of one thing? When the question is asking you to compare aspects of two subjects, each body paragraph compares and contrasts two subjects in one aspect. When the question is asking you to compare pros and cons of one subject, your first body paragraph discusses the advantage and your second body paragraph discusses the disadvantages.

We'll look at how you can score high in each scoring criteria. An easier criteria to score high in is how you organize and structure an essay. Introduction The introductory paragraph contains the general background information about the essay topic and a thesis statement. A thesis statement includes your main opinion on the essay topic and a preview of your key points which you will be developing in the body paragraphs. Body A Body B Body C Each body paragraph is used to explain one key point you introduced in the introduction paragraph.

Generally speaking, a high scoring essay has 3 body paragraphs, but if you find yourself running out of time, you can just write 2.

Introduction The conclusion paragraph summarize each of your key points. It contains a restatement of the thesis statement you wrote in your introduction and a brief summary of your main ideas. This 5 paragraph structure approach can be used for 5 out of the 6 essay question types. Each of your essays is given a score from 0 to 5.

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Your combined essay scores are converted to a section score of 0 to These four criteria are:. It takes time to develop good writing skills.

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Chances are a good English writer already has years of experience writing English and using English in their daily life. If you are not a good English writer, do not get frustrated. The good news is that you only need to be able to write well on TOEFL independent and integrated tasks. Try it free.

Writing the essay

After reading the passage, you then listen to a lecture on the same topic. You then write an essay summarizing the lecture and the reading passage and showing the relationship between them. You should not express your own opinion of the issues and you should not bring in any information form outside the passage and the lecture.

Reading: 3 minutes Writing: 20 minutes Independent Writing Task You read a prompt a topic and express your opinions in your response. Your response is based entirely on your own knowledge and experience. Writing: 30 minutes.

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Contradiction: The lecture contradicts or casts doubt on the key points in the reading passage. Supporting with Examples: The lecture supports the key points in the reading passage. In this task, taking good notes is critical. Here is the breakdown of your essay structure: Introduction Body A Body B Body C Conclusion The introductory paragraph should contain the following: The main topic of both the reading passage and the lecture A paraphrase of the question describing the number of points made that were used to cast doubt on the reading passage.

Sea otters are a small mammal that lives in the waters along North America's west coast from California to Alaska. A few years ago some of the sea otter populations off the Alaskan coast started to decline rapidly, which raised several concerns because of their important role in the coastal ecosystem. Experts began investigating and came up with two possible explanations. One explanation was environmental pollution and the second was attacks by predators.

It seems clear that it was, in fact, environmental pollution that was the cause. One reason pollution was more likely was because of the known pollution sources along the Alaskan coast such as oil rigs. Also water samples taken in the area showed increased levels of chemicals that could decrease the otters' immune systems and indirectly result in their deaths. Another thing that pointed to pollution as the culprit was the decline of other sea mammals such as seals in the same areas. This indicated that whatever was affecting the otters was also affecting the other sea mammals. You could still cut and paste to help you keep track of interesting passages before deciding which ones to quote in your paper remembering, as suggested above, to create a new file for each website you work with.

MLA: Aristotle. Nicomachean Ethics. The Internet Classics Archives. Nicomachean ethics. Ross, Trans. Stevenson Ed. Original work published B. Note: in APA style, no access date is necessary for information that will not be changed or updated, like an electronic book or a journal or newspaper article. A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet.

Also note: You may notice that listing Internet sources often takes more time and care than listing print sources. Since the authorship and location of Web sources are harder to establish, readers need even more information in order to assess sources and to retrieve them for further study. APA: Scott, J.